Beans is one of the staple food that is mostly eaten in Nigeria; it is from Fabaceae family and it is classified as legume. Before now rice used to be more costly than beans but presently beans sales higher. Some people are of the opinion that beans is the third most consumed staple food after rice and cassava in Nigeria. If you are looking for farming business to do that will give you quick money within 3 months start beans farming. A little input will produce much yield and good profit.
Beans farming is making many farmers rich, a bag of beans goes for #30,000 and above. Our growing population is putting serious pressure on the supply chain because it is not always enough. Yet commercial beans cultivation is left for the Northerners .That is why the beans produce is not always enough to cater for more than 180 millions of people. The reason beans is imported into the country from neighbouring countries such as Niger Republic.
It grows well under warmth condition and so the best time to plant beans in the South is October. Beans need water mainly for germination once establish will grow with or without water. It requires rainfall for about 30 days between 300mm-400mm. The planting season for beans for those in the North is August. Beans can be cooked as porridge, mixed with stew, with rice and beans, processed to beans flour, used for akara and moi-moi. It is protein in nature, very good in the development and health of the body.
Beans no matter the type are very easy to cultivate and manage; they all required the same growing conditions. This post will treat; the planting season of beans, yield per hectare, types of beans, profit in beans farming and marketing.
TYPES OF BEANS
Just like in rice farming seed selection is equally very important in beans farming. You have to use the variety that is consumed locally such as iron beans; it should be healthy with no deformities such as broken, weevil boring inside or create holes in it. We have black beans, kidney beans, pinto beans and Navy beans. For local consumption plant kidney beans (oloyin beans) for international markets.
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Improved beans seedling is about #7,000 for a kilogram. It is advisable you cultivate this variety because;
- It grows and matures fast,
- Resist diseases and pest
- Has healthy seeds
- Good taste
The land can be lease if you don’t have enough money to own one. Since harvest can be done within 80 days; with #20,000 you can lease a hectare depending on the location. Beans should not be repeated on the same land until after 3 years. Clear grasses and tilled the land for aeration/good germination. Beans can grow well in a wide variety of soil. The soil should be averagely fertile and well-drained, slightly acidic PH of 6.0 to 7.0 is ideal for optimum growth. If you plant beans early it will rot but you can warm the soil if it is cold with black plastic for some days before planting.
Sow beans with the eye facing down, 1-2m deep, 3 seeds in a hole, the spacing should be between 4-6m apart. Plant them in rows 24-30m between rows. Good spacing is required for proper development and to allow the pods dry well when matured. Beans germinate within 6 days. Planting is direct sowing, it doesn’t require any transplanting.
There are some species of beans that needs support in other to grow well and produce example is the pole beans. You have to stack them the same way it is done in cucumber farming. Water them immediately after planting.
Beans are grown in two ways; as snap beans or pole beans. The snap beans start producing before pole beans. And will continue production for more than a month up to two. Pole beans require enough time to grow vines before they start setting beans. And they all come up at once, to continue harvest you have to spread their planting for like 2 weeks.
Beans seedling does not need too much water because it can kill them by causing the root to rot. However if rain has stopped completely then you have to water your beans farm sparingly with water. Do not leave water on the leaves because it can damage them by encouraging fungus activities. Thereby making the plant susceptible to diseases. Some beans varieties are water-resistant but you can be checking the soil to see if the surface is completely dried then you water them.
Beans have shallow roots to keep them moist you have to mulch the plant. Use compost such as leaves to cover them.
MANURE APPLICATION IN BEANS FARMING
If the soil is depleted or lack nutrients then you can add manure to boost the fertility. However it should be done with caution because too much of it will only make the plant grow healthy without fruiting. Once the crop is established it doesn’t need fertilizer any more due to the fact that it will generate nitrogen nutrient for itself. In case you notice young plants leaves becoming pale it is a sign of nitrogen deficiency. Add organic manure such as treated chicken dung which is rich in nitrogen.
Mildew and mold affects beans but they are mainly affected by lots of insects. Weevils is one of them; also too much water will cause rot. Start applying chemicals from flowering stage until pod formation Apply imiforce and scorpion force together every week when beans starts flowering. You can also chose to use best action the application should be done routinely.
INTER CROPPING IN BEANS FARMING
Maize can be inter crop with beans, the spacing should be 2 month interval. Plant maize in June and beans in August.
HARVESTING/YIELD PER HECTARE
Most beans mature under 80 days or more depending on the variety and management. Harvest beans when they start firming up or can be snapped. Do not wait too long before harvesting because they can become overgrown and tough within a day and become unpalatable. Gently pull the beans from the vine or by snapping off the vine end carefully if you are using the beans immediately. On the other hand beans that are harvested too early will not develop proper flavour and texture. Sample one or two pods to ascertain if they are dry for harvest.
Thresh to remove the seeds from the pod. Then dry the beans in an open space under the sun for some days to dry completely before storage. Snap beans are eaten immediately after harvest. Poles should be left to mature well for storing..
PROFITABILITY IN BEANS FARMING
Beans farming is very profitable, one hectare can give you 28 bags of beans. And the money to plant and manage the farm outside land is less than a #100,000. If you are going into large-scale commercial beans farming for example 10 hectares aside land #1,000,000 or less will complete the work till harvest. The bag of beans for 10 hectares will be 280. Assuming a bag cost #30,000, that means 280 bags will be #8,400,000. When you subtract expenses lets say 2,000,000 million you will be left with 6 million that’s how profitable beans farming business is.
Sell to market women and men, most shopping mall, super markets and open shops now sell foodstuff, bag the beans in different sizes and supply to these places.
Advertise on social media such as Facebook, Jiji etc. Export to foreign countries for more money.
Adding value to any product is more advantageous. When you add value to beans you will in turn create jobs to many unemployed and also make good profit. So process your beans into flour. A bag of beans flour goes for #70,000 and above.
HOW TO BAG BEANS
Beans is always bagged with 100kg bags and sold for #30,000 and above depending on the location. These days beans are given nice packaging that is attractive to buyers. Buy fancy bags from wholesalers and take them to graphic designers to give a good design to it. The bags should be different sizes so you can package beans that will be affordable for both low-class, middle class and elites to buy. Package that of #1,000, #2,000,….#5,000 etc.
WHY YOU SHOULD START BEANS FARMING
- It is very simple and straight forward
- A little space will produce large quantity of beans
- It requires little or no experience
- You can start very small and increase it late
- Beans is an exportable commodity so you can plant for export.
- It is harvested within 3 months which means you can make profit within this time limit.
- Beans farming is yet to be harnessed by majority of Nigerians meaning you will always sell anytime any day.
- Little amount put into it will produce big money when sold.
IMPORTANCE OF BEANS
- A good source of protein for the body
- Good for heart health
- Contains antioxidant
- Reduces the risk of cancer
- Prevents liver fat
- Controls appetite.
- Energies the body
BEANS SUPPLY BUSINESS
Another way to make money from beans is to be a major distributor of beans to wholesalers in your location. You can travel to the north and purchase a trailer load of beans and distribute to traders. But you will need up to #5,000,000 to do it effectively. That doesn’t mean you can’t start small. I know of a guy who supplies palm oil to buyers in Adamawa State. And purchase beans and kanda in return and sell them to market traders in Akwa Ibom State. Believe traders always wait for his goods to arrive.
BEANS STORAGE BUSINESS
Beans storage business is very profitable I have explained this in details in one of my posts; ‘grain storage business’. There are many ways to make money from beans trading, apart from buying and selling of beans. You can store your harvested beans and sell them later for bigger profits. Also you can buy from the northern parts of the country and store a for resell.
Believe agribusiness is profitable whichever way you choose to start. Try beans farming today and smile to the bank tomorrow.
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