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How to start pepper farming in Nigeria: step by step guide

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Eno Johnson
Eno Johnson is my name, I am an entrepreneur in the making. This blog was birthed because I needed a platform to pen my experience down in Agriculture and business.

Pepper is a spicy vegetable used all over the globe. For now, Nigeria is the leading country as far as pepper is concerned in Africa followed by Ghana as China is the world leading producers. It was a popular believe that pepper can only do well in the North because they cultivate pepper in large quantities.Pepper farming is another area agribusiness minded persons should take a look at.

In this era of vertical farming pepper can be grown anywhere in Nigeria; in the North, south-west, South east, South south, North central etc. The idea of vertical farming is making farming easy and possible not minding the location and land availability. Pepper farming started from Central America were it is said to originate.


Pepper has increased demand. Despite the fact that pepper is grown locally around us yet plenty of it is still been transported to the southern part of Nigeria from the North. It is therefore necessary for more people to go into pepper farming both for subsistence and exportation.

Vegetables, such as cucumber, watermelon may likely experience glut at the long run but pepper can never glut. This is because very few people considers going into pepper farming.

Read Also: How to start ground pepper business in Nigeria


There are many kinds of pepper; they are grown according to regions and climatic conditions.Pepper farming


In Nigeria we have the commonest pepper atarodo, most people considers the smaller ones to the bigger ones due to its hotty nature.


This is the one most farmers are mostly cultivating now because of its price value. Sweet pepper is costlier than other peppers in the market.

Sweet pepper is mainly used for colouring of food especially fried rice and also mostly used in salad ingredients and in decoration of foods.

Others are Atawere (bird pepper) sombo (red pepper) tatashi.


After acquiring a land for this purpose clear the land and make beds on it. Threat the soil with insecticides in other to kill any insect that may pose a challenge to the crop. Pour organic manure which could be pig, cow or poultry dung on the bed. The distance of the bed should be 1m long and the row 1m as well. Pepper generally perform well in a sandy loam soil rich in organic matters

Read Also: How To Start Hibiscus Farming In Nigeria (Zobo Plant)

It is advisable to use Hybrid seeds because they are already treated against diseases. And it takes few months before they are matured for harvest.Pepper farming

Get a nursery tray filled it up with top soil mixed with compose. Spread the pepper on top and then mulch the tray. If you don’t have nursery trays you can use plastic rubbers or cement bags with wide mouth.


Depending on the sizes and the species of pepper planted, spacing should be 12-18 inches apart; beds should be raised to about 10 inches high.

Water the beds two to three days before transplanting into it. Do your transplanting in the evenings. Your beds should be close to the nursery so as to save the life of the pepper seedlings. In pepper farming the seedlings should be transplanted to the farm 8-10 weeks after planting in nursery.


Most pepper seeds sprout in about 7 days at a temperature of 70-80 degrees F. This depends on the variety planted. Germination for hot peppers can be delayed, to hasten it cover the nursery with a transparent material and carefully remove it when the seed starts sprouting.


Pepper farming needs plenty water because the plant consumes a lot of water, from germination to harvest. Water should be applied moderately. Waterlog soil is not good for pepper cultivation that is why a well drain sandy-loam soil is needed for the planting. So that it can hold enough moisture to keep the crops growing. The organic manure added to the soil will help in retaining moisture too. Use white substance for mulching to prevent too much water from evaporating during the day.


During transplanting you can use dry poultry waste (rich in Nitrogen), wood such as sawdust is rich in potassium. You can also use bone meal get it from abattoir, it is rich in phosphorus. Apply more manure during blossoming and fruiting prior to harvesting. This will make the plant to produce well. For a person that wants to use inorganic fertilizers you can apply NPK 15-15-15 or buy liquid fertilizers from GNLD.

Pepper plants are light feeders it is therefore not good to apply too much fertilizer because it will make the plant to develop hush foliage instead of fruiting


Weeding should be done twice before harvesting. Do not allow weeds in your farm they carry pests and diseases. They can spread fungi and virus to healthy pepper plants close to them.


It is very important to stake pepper plant because they increase in weight as they develop. In order to prevent damages, trellis the pepper plant to a bamboo wood or any other wood you can find around you.

Do not use wire or heavy rope it can chop the pepper plant gradually until it chokes them off or snap the stems.Pepper farming


Though it is advisable to buy pepper seeds that are resistant to diseases, at the same time find out diseases that commonly affect similar crops in the area. Example of such crops are tomatoes, garden egg etc. Use organic pesticides e.g. pestomax if there is any need. Don’t work in the farm after the rains as pathogens can easily be carried about in a wait body. Most people are doing pepper farming in green houses which is very commendable.

Neem oil can be used to eliminate or prevent pest. There are certain grasshoppers greenish in colour that are threat to pepper farming. This insects feed on pepper flowers and thereby preventing fruiting. You can handpick them if your farm is small for a large farm it will be a Herculean task. These insects are very fast in eating up the flowers once it spout up they consumed it quickly.


It is very important to mulch an existing farm taking into considerations the importance of mulching. Use straw or black nylon to mulch the farm.


Pepper cultivation is profitable in the send that you plant one seed to harvest more than a hundred pepper. You can keep harvesting pepper up to 3 months. A basket of pepper is sold for more #5,000 so there is much gain in it. Just like you harvest ugu from time to time so also is pepper for a healthy profitable harvest.


Pepper is harvested before they are ripe because they can continue ripening after harvest if they were matured at the point of harvest. For commercial purposes it is advisable that you continue harvesting because the more you harvest pepper before maturity the more they keep fruiting. Pepper fruits that are fully ripen enhances flavour.

Hot pepper takes about 150 days for maturity depending on the varieties, the number of days start from the time of transplant. harvesting is done by detaching the pepper from the parent plant by hand. They are easy to pluck so there won’t be any need for you to drag them.

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  1. Eno, your write up is excellent. I am a pepper farmer. The choice of land is the most important aspect of making profit. You said it all there is no such word like glut in pepper biz rather you can never satisfy your customers.

  2. I learn greatly from your bank of knowledge. I hope to start the pepper farming soonest. I stay in Ogun State. Thanks

  3. Good day eno.. This article have really boosted my morale… Been Wanting to start this pepper farming but don’t really know how to go about it… I have no knowledge of pepper, and the diseases etc… The nursery, can i use soil from my land?

  4. Big up Eno, nice piece.
    Considering storage challenge, any idea of equipment that can add value to the raw pepper, which will allow for preparation before sale

  5. I’ve been following your write and I love reading your professional procedures when it come to agric. I am a prospective farmer, how can contact you?

  6. Hi,

    I want to appreciate you contribution towards helping humanity. I am a pastor who want to help the farmers in the church am currently pastoring. I want them to go into this pepper farming next year. But I want them to be trained or get the technical know-how of it.

    How can you be of help to them?

    • Waoh! I am so happy to read this, good plans and good gesture. Please Sir, you can reach me on 08035965405 so I can give you a contact number.

  7. I invested heavily in yellow pepper some years ago in 2acres of land,but at the verge of harvest they all died. When I visited the farm they have all dried up,even till now I don’t know what to call it,it was unbearable to me,if there death is physical or spiritual I can’t tell,my farm land was like a field then. I withdrew from farming business, but now I want to go in to it full time next year,so I need to have adequate information about it again because I know it is a gold mine.
    Can you pls.tell me what happened to them and the date for upcoming pepper farming workshop,thanks.

    • Sorry for the loss. You have to visit a pepper farm frequently to know the state of the farm. There are some pest and diseases if not attacked quickly would have wrecked havoc before you know what is going on. I am suspecting lack of water. When did it happened; dry season or raining season? It will help me to visualized what happened.

  8. A great article. I started a farming pepper in my garden early this and intend to go commercial. Infact I have broadcasted pepper seeds in nursery beds. I intend to plant on 5 plots of land. Your article has really blessed me. Thanks a million.

  9. Hi, Eno. Your contribution here was very useful. I planted pepper in a container. It’s 4 months old now, so grown and blomming. But I am wondering how long before it brings fruits.

    • 4 months! that should call for concern. please stop using nitrogen fertilizer it will mae the plant to bloom without fruiting. please read my post to understand some of these things

  10. So proud of you my sister Eno. This is very Impressive. You should consider starting an online training platform where you can offer training and support to people interested farming. God bless you dear Sister

  11. Wouldn’t be nice reading all these detailed beneficial information without giving commendation.. thank you for this post it really helps… now I will make more research I’m starting pepper farming this year by Gods grace….

  12. Wouldn’t be nice reading all these detailed and beneficial information without giving commendation.. thanks for this post it really help .

  13. Nice write up,I have tried to plant pepper on a small scale my challenge is d seed most I planted fail to germinate does one need to soak seeds in warm water overnight?

    • why not try seedlings if you cannot grow the seeds. Are you the person that dried the pepper, i hope the drying didnt pass required percentage. you can soak them in water overnihjt

      • Thanks
        When is the best time to start pepper farm, how is the market now, what type of pepper will u advice someone to go into

        • the market is good, the specie to go for depends on your location. from March-April and dry season is from October to December

  14. Thanks so much. The write up is so informing. Am planning to start up the business on some two plots of land, by God’s grace.

  15. thanks for the write-up, please how much can one budget to plant pepper on 8 plots of land, water is available, just the planting cost and the workmanship. thanks

  16. Please l want to commend you for the lecture
    I also want to know the variety usually called green pepper in the market which is used for cooking fried rice and if it can be cultivated in Anambra stàte

  17. Thank you so much for this write up, I’m really interested in cultivating bell peppers. I am in portharcourt, where can I find the seeds?

  18. Hi Eno,
    Thanks for that piece of information.
    Could you please, send the prices and species of tomatoes, scent pepper, and okra seeds that you have and if possible send pictures along side.


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